BlueBream The Web Component Framework

9.5. Schemas and Widgets

9.5.1. Introduction

In the early stages of development, the BlueBream (then know as Zope 3) developers decided that it would be cumbersome to manually write HTML forms and to manually validate the input. BlueBream team realized that if they could extend interfaces, we could auto-generate HTML forms and also automatically validate any input. This chapter gives some background information and formally introduces the zope.schema and zope.formlib packages.

Schema is an interface defined using special attributes called fields. Schemas extend the notion of interfaces to detailed descriptions of Attributes (but not methods). Every schema is an interface and specifies the public fields of an object. A field roughly corresponds to an attribute of a python object. But a Field provides space for at least a title and a description. It can also constrain its value and provide a validation method. Besides you can optionally specify characteristics such as its value being read-only or not required.

The schema was developed based on the following three main goals:

  1. Full specification of properties on an API level
  2. Data input validation and conversion
  3. Automated GUI form generation (mainly for the Web browser)

BlueBream schemas were born when Jim Fulton and Martijn Faassen thought about Formulator for Zope 3 and PropertySets while at the Zope 3 sprint at the Zope BBQ in Berlin. They realized that if you strip all view logic from forms then you have something similar to interfaces. And thus schemas were born.

The implementation of Schema resides in zope.schema package. The zope.schema package is intended to be independently reusable in any Python project. Like many other packages in BlueBream, the zope.schema is also maintained by the Zope Toolkit project.

9.5.2. Schema versus Interfaces

As mentioned before, schemas are just an extension to interfaces and therefore depend on the zope.interface package. Fields in schemas are equivalent to methods in interfaces. Both are complementary to each other, since they describe different aspects of an object. The methods of an interface describe the functionality of a component, while the schema’s fields represent the state.

It is thus not necessary to develop a new syntax for writing schemas so, schema simply reuse the interface declaration.

from zope.interface import Interface
from zope.schema import Text

class IExample(Interface):

    text = Text(
        description=u"The text of the example.",
  • Line 2: All default fields can be simply imported from zope.schema.
  • Line 7-8: The title and description are used as human-readable text for the form generation. Of course, they also serve as documentation of the field itself.
  • Line 9: Various fields support several other meta-data fields. The required option is actually available for all fields and specifies whether an object implementing IExample must provide a value for text or not.

9.5.3. Simple Usage

Let’s have a look at a simple example. First we write an interface as usual, but instead of describing the attributes of the interface with Attribute instances, we now use schema fields:

>>> import zope.interface
>>> import zope.schema
>>> class IBookmark(zope.interface.Interface):
...     title = zope.schema.TextLine(
...         title=u'Title',
...         description=u'The title of the bookmark',
...         required=True)
...     url = zope.schema.URI(
...         title=u'Bookmark URL',
...         description=u'URL of the Bookmark',
...         required=True)

Now we create a class that implements this interface and create an instance of it:

>>> class Bookmark(object):
...     zope.interface.implements(IBookmark)
...     title = None
...     url = None
>>> bm = Bookmark()

We would now like to only add validated values to the class. This can be done by first validating and then setting the value on the object. The first step is to define some data:

>>> title = u'BlueBream Website'
>>> url = ''

Now we, get the fields from the interface:

>>> title_field = IBookmark.get('title')
>>> url_field = IBookmark.get('url')

Next we have to bind these fields to the context, so that instance-specific information can be used for validation:

>>> title_bound = title_field.bind(bm)
>>> url_bound = url_field.bind(bm)

Now that the fields are bound, we can finally validate the data:

>>> title_bound.validate(title)
>>> url_bound.validate(url)

If the validation is successful, None is returned. If a validation error occurs a ValidationError will be raised; for example:

>>> url_bound.validate(u'')
Traceback (most recent call last):
WrongType: (u'', <type 'str'>, 'url')
>>> url_bound.validate('')
Traceback (most recent call last):

Now that the data has been successfully validated, we can set it on the object:

>>> title_bound.set(bm, title)
>>> url_bound.set(bm, url)

That’s it. You still might think this is a lot of work to validate and set a value for an object. Note, however, that it is very easy to write helper functions that automate these tasks. If correctly designed, you will never have to worry explicitly about validation again, since the system takes care of it automatically.

9.5.4. What is a schema, how does it compare to an interface?

A schema is an extended interface which defines fields. You can validate that the attributes of an object conform to their fields defined on the schema. With plain interfaces you can only validate that methods conform to their interface specification.

So interfaces and schemas refer to different aspects of an object (respectively its code and state).

A schema starts out like an interface but defines certain fields to which an object’s attributes must conform. Let’s look at a stripped down example from the programmer’s tutorial:

>>> import re
>>> class IContact(zope.interface.Interface):
...     """Provides access to basic contact information."""
...     first = zope.schema.TextLine(title=u"First name")
...     last = zope.schema.TextLine(title=u"Last name")
...     email = zope.schema.TextLine(title=u"Electronic mail address")
...     address = zope.schema.Text(title=u"Postal address")
...     postalCode = zope.schema.TextLine(
...         title=u"Postal code",
...         constraint=re.compile("\d{5,5}(-\d{4,4})?$").match)

TextLine is a field and expresses that an attribute is a single line of Unicode text. Text expresses an arbitrary Unicode (“text”) object. The most interesting part is the last attribute specification. It constrains the postalCode attribute to only have values that are US postal codes.

Now we want a class that adheres to the IContact schema:

>>> class Contact(object):
...     zope.interface.implements(IContact)
...     def __init__(self, first, last, email, address, pc):
...         self.first = first
...         self.last = last
... = email
...         self.address = address
...         self.postalCode = pc

Now you can see if an instance of Contact actually implements the schema:

>>> someone = Contact(u'Tim', u'Roberts', u'tim@roberts', u'',
...                   u'12032-3492')
>>> for field in zope.schema.getFields(IContact).values():
...     bound = field.bind(someone)
...     bound.validate(bound.get(someone))

9.5.5. Data Modeling Concepts

The zope.schema package provides a core set of field types, including single- and multi-line text fields, binary data fields, integers, floating-point numbers, and date/time values.

Selection issues; field type can specify:

  • “Raw” data value

    Simple values not constrained by a selection list.

  • Value from enumeration (options provided by schema)

    This models a single selection from a list of possible values specified by the schema. The selection list is expected to be the same for all values of the type. Changes to the list are driven by schema evolution.

    This is done by mixing-in the IEnumerated interface into the field type, and the Enumerated mix-in for the implementation (or emulating it in a concrete class).

  • Value from selection list (options provided by an object)

    This models a single selection from a list of possible values specified by a source outside the schema. The selection list depends entirely on the source of the list, and may vary over time and from object to object. Changes to the list are not related to the schema, but changing how the list is determined is based on schema evolution.

    There is not currently a spelling of this, but it could be facilitated using alternate mix-ins similar to IEnumerated and Enumerated.

  • Whether or not the field is read-only

    If a field value is read-only, it cannot be changed once the object is created.

  • Whether or not the field is required

    If a field is designated as required, assigned field values must always be non-missing. See the next section for a description of missing values.

  • A value designated as missing

    Missing values, when assigned to an object, indicate that there is ‘no data’ for that field. Missing values are analogous to null values in relational databases. For example, a boolean value can be True, False, or missing, in which case its value is unknown.

    While Python’s None is the most likely value to signify ‘missing’, some fields may use different values. For example, it is common for text fields to use the empty string (‘’) to signify that a value is missing. Numeric fields may use 0 or -1 instead of None as their missing value.

    A field that is ‘required’ signifies that missing values are invalid and should not be assigned.

  • A default value

    Default field values are assigned to objects when they are first created.

9.5.6. Fields and Widgets

Widgets are components that display field values and, in the case of writable fields, allow the user to edit those values.


  • Display current field values, either in a read-only format, or in a format that lets the user change the field value.
  • Update their corresponding field values based on values provided by users.
  • Manage the relationships between their representation of a field value and the object’s field value. For example, a widget responsible for editing a number will likely represent that number internally as a string. For this reason, widgets must be able to convert between the two value formats. In the case of the number-editing widget, string values typed by the user need to be converted to numbers such as int or float.
  • Support the ability to assign a missing value to a field. For example, a widget may present a None option for selection that, when selected, indicates that the object should be updated with the field’s missing value.

9.5.7. Core Schema Fields

After we have seen a simple example of a schema, let’s now look at all the basic fields and their properties.

  • Properties that all fields support:

    • title (type: TextLine): The title of the attribute is used as label when displaying the field widget.
    • description (type: Text): The description of the attribute is used for tooltips and advanced help.
    • required (type: Bool): Specifies whether an attribute is required or not to have a value. In add-forms, required attributes are equivalent to required constructor arguments.
    • readonly (type: Bool): If a field is readonly, then the value of the attribute can be set only once and can then only be displayed. Often a unique id for some object is a good candidate for a read-only field.
    • default (type: depends on field): The default value that is given to the attribute, if no initialization value was provided. This value is often specified, if a field is required.
    • order (type: Int): Fields are often grouped by some logical order. This value specifies a relative position in this order. We usually do not set this value manually, since it is automatically assigned when an interface is initialized. The order of the fields in a schema is by default the same as the order of the fields in the Python code.
  • Bytes, BytesLine

    Bytes and BytesLine only differ by the fact that BytesLine cannot contain a new line character. Bytes behave identical to the Python type str.

    Bytes and BytesLine fields are iteratable.

    • min_length (type: Int): After the white space has been normalized, there cannot be less than this amount of characters in the bytes string. The default is None, which refers to no minimum.
    • max_length (type: Int): After the white space has been normalized, there cannot be more than this amount of characters in the bytes string. The default is None, which refers to no maximum.
  • Text, TextLine

    The two fields only differ by the fact that TextLine cannot contain a newline character. Text fields contain unicode, meaning that they are intended to be human-readable strings/text.

    Text and TextLine fields are iteratable.

    • min_length (type: Int): After the white space has been normalized, there cannot be less than this amount of characters in the text string. The default is None, which refers to no minimum.
    • max_length (type: Int): After the white space has been normalized, there cannot be more than this amount of characters in the text string. The default is None, which refers to no maximum.
  • SourceText

    Source Text is a special field derived from Text, which contains source code of any type. It is more or less a marker field for the forms machinery, so that special input fields can be used for source code.

  • Password

    Password is a special derivative for the TextLine field and is treated separately for presentation reasons. However, someone also might want more fine-grained validation for passwords.

  • Bool

    The Bool field has no further attributes. It maps directly to Python’s bool object.

  • Int

    Int fields directly map to Python’s int type.

    • min (type: Int): Specifies the smallest acceptable integer. This is useful in many ways, such as allowing only positive values by making this field 0.
    • max (type: Int): Specifies the largest acceptable integer, which excludes the value itself. It can be used to specify an upper bound, such as the current year, if you are interested in the past only.

    Both attributes combined allow the programmer to specify ranges of acceptable values.

  • Float

    Float fields directly map to Python’s float type.

    • min (type: Float): Specifies the smallest acceptable floating point number. This is useful in many ways, such as allowing only positive values by making this field 0.0.
    • max (type: Float): Specifies the largest acceptable floating point number, which excludes the value itself (typical computer programming pattern). It can be used to specify an upper bound, such as 1.0, if you are only interested in probabilities.

    Both attributes combined allow the programmer to specify ranges of acceptable values.

  • Datetime

    Similar to Int and Float, Datetime has a min and max field that specify the boundaries of the possible values. Acceptable values for these fields must be instances of the builtin datetime type.

  • Tuple, List

    The reason both of these fields exists is that we can easily map them to their Python type tuple and list, respectively.

    Tuple and List fields are iteratable.

    • min_length (type: Int): There cannot be less than this amount of items in the sequence. The default is None, which means there is no minimum.
    • max_length (type: Int): There cannot be more than this amount of items in the sequence. The default is None, which means there is no maximum.
    • value_type (type: Field): Values contained by these sequence types must conform to this field’s constraint. Most commonly a Choice field (see below) is specified here, which allows you to select from a fixed set of values.
  • Dict

    The Dict is a mapping field that maps from one set of fields to another.

    fields are iteratable.

    • min_length (type: Int): There cannot be less than this amount of items in the dictionary. The default is None, which means there is no minimum.
    • max_length (type: Int): There cannot be more than this amount of items in the dictionary. The default is None, which means there is no maximum.
    • key_type (type: Field): Every dictionary item key has to conform to the specified field.
    • value_type (type: Field): Every dictionary item value has to conform to the specified field.
  • Choice

    The Choice field allows one to select a particular value from a provided set of values. You can either provide the values as a simple sequence (list or tuple) or specify a vocabulary (by reference or name) that will provide the values. Vocabularies provide a flexible list of values, in other words the set of allowed values can change as the system changes. Since they are so complex, they are covered separately in “Vocabularies and Fields”.

    • vocabulary (type: Vocabulary): A vocabulary instance that is used to provide the available values. This attribute is None, if a vocabulary name was specified and the field has not been bound to a context.
    • vocabularyName (type: TextLine): The name of the vocabulary that is used to provide the values. The vocabulary for this name can only be looked up, when the field is bound, in other words has a context. Upon binding, the vocabulary is automatically looked using the name and the context.

    The constructor also accepts a values argument that specifies a static set of values. These values are immediately converted to a static vocabulary.

  • Object

    This field specifies an object that must implement a specific schema. Only objects that provide the specified schema are allowed.

    • schema (type: Interface): This field provides a reference to the schema that must be provided by objects that want to be stored in the described attribute.
  • DottedName

    Derived from the BytesLine field, the DottedName field represents valid Python-style dotted names (object references). This field can be used when it is desirable that a valid and resolvable Python dotted name is provided.

    This field has no further attributes.

  • URI

    Derived from the BytesLine field, the URI field makes sure that the value is always a valid URI. This is particularly useful when you want to reference resources (such as RSS feeds or images) on remote computers.

    This field has no further attributes.

  • Id

    Both, the DottedName and URI field, make up the Id field. Any dotted name or URI represent a valid id in Zope. Ids are used for identifying many types of objects, such as permissions and principals, but also for providing annotation keys.

    This field has no further attributes.

  • InterfaceField

    The Interface field has no further attributes. Its value must be an object that provides zope.interface.Interface, in other words it must be an interface.

For a formal listing of the Schema/Field API, see the API documentation tool at http://localhost:8080/++apidoc++ or see zope.schema.interfaces module.

9.5.8. Auto-generated Forms using the forms Package

Forms are much more BlueBream specific than schemas and can be found in the zope.formlib package. The views of schema fields are called widgets. Widgets responsible for data display and conversion in their specific presentation type. Currently widgets exist mainly for HTML (the Web browser).

Widgets are separated into two groups, display and input widgets. Display widgets are often very simply and only show a text representation of the Python object. The input widgets, however, are more complex and display a greater variety of choices. The following list shows all available browser- based input widgets (found in zope.formlib.widget): Text Widgets

Text-based widgets always require some sort of keyboard input. A string representation of a field is then converted to the desired Python object, like and integer or a date.

  • TextWidget: Being probably the simplest widget, it displays the text input element and is mainly used for the TextLine, which expects to be unicode. It also serves as base widget for many of the following widgets.
  • TextAreaWidget: As the name suggests this widget displays a text area and assumes its input to be some unicode string. (note that the Publisher already takes care of the encoding issues).
  • BytesWidget, BytesAreaWidget: Direct descendents from TextWidget and TextAreaWidget, the only difference is that these widgets expect bytes as input and not a unicode string, which means they must be valid ASCII encodable.
  • ASCIIWidget: This widget, based on the BytesWidget, ensures that only ASCII character are part of the inputted data.
  • PasswordWidget: Almost identical to the TextWidget, it only displays a password element instead of a text element.
  • IntWidget: A derivative of TextWidget, it only overwrites the conversion method to ensure the conversion to an integer.
  • FloatWidget: Derivative of TextWidget, it only overwrites the conversion method to ensure the conversion to an floating point.
  • DatetimeWidget: Someone might expect a smart and complex widget at this point, but for now it is just a simple TextWidget with a string to datetime converter. There is also a DateWidget that only handles dates. Boolean Widgets

Boolean widgets’ only responsibility is to convert some binary input to the Python values True or False.

  • CheckBoxWidget: This widget displays a single checkbox widget that can be either checked or unchecked, representing the state of the boolean value.
  • BooleanRadioWidget: Two radio buttons are used to represent the true and false state of the boolean. One can pass the textual value for the two states in the constructor. The default is on and off (or their translation for languages other than English).
  • BooleanSelectWidget, BooleanDropdownWidget: Similar to the BooleanRadioWidget, textual representations of the true and false state are used to select the value. See SelectWidget and DropdownWidget, respectively, for more details. Single Selection Widgets

Widgets that allow a single item to be selected from a list of values are usually views of a field, a vocabulary and the request, instead of just the field and request pair. Therefore so called proxy-widgets are used to map from field-request to field-vocabulary-request pairs. For example the ChoiceInputWidget, which takes a Choice field and a request object, is simply a function that looks up another widget that is registered for the Choice field, its vocabulary and the request. Below is a list of all available widgets that require the latter three inputs.

  • SelectWidget: This widget provides a multiply-sized selection element where the options are populated through the vocabulary terms. If the field is not required, a “no value” option will be available as well. The user will allowed to only select one value though, since the Choice field is not a sequence-based field.
  • DropdownWidget: As a simple derivative of the SelectWdiget, it has its size set to “1”, which makes it a dropdown box. Dropdown boxes have the advantage that they always just show one value, which makes some more user-friendly for single selections.
  • RadioWidget: This widget displays a radio button for each term in the vocabulary. Radio buttons have the advantage that they always show all choices and are therefore well suitable for small vocabularies. Multiple Selections Widgets

This group of widgets is used to display input forms collection-based fields, such as List or Set. Similar to the single selection widgets, two proxy- widgets are used to look up the correct widget. The first step is to map from field- request to field- value_type- request using a widget called CollectionInputWidget. This allows us to use different widgets when the value type is an Int or Choice field for example. Optionally, a second proxy-widget is used to convert the field- value_type- request pair to a field- vocabulary- request pair, as it is the case when the value type is a choice field.

  • MultiSelectWidget: Creates a select element with the multiple attribute set to true. This creates a multi-selection box. This is especially useful for vocabularies with many terms. Note that if your vocabulary supports a query interface, you can even filter your selectable items using queries.
  • MultiCheckBoxWidget: Similar to the multi-selection widget, this widget allows multi-value selections of a given list, but uses checkboxes instead of a list. This widget is more useful for smaller vocabularies.
  • TupleSequenceWidget: This widget is used for all cases where the value type is not a Choice field. It used the widget of the value type field to add new values to the tuple. Other input elements are used to remove items.
  • ListSequenceWidget: This widget is equivalent to the previous one, except that it generates lists instead of tuples. Miscellaneous Widgets

  • FileWidget: This widget displays a file input element and makes sure the received data is a file. This field is ideal for quickly uploading byte streams as required for the Bytes field.
  • ObjectWidget: The ObjectWidget is the view for an object field. It uses the schema of the object to construct an input form. The object factory, which is passed in as a constructor argument, is used to build the object from the input afterwards.

Here is a simple interactive example demonstrating the rendering and conversion functionality of a widget:

>>> from zope.publisher.browser import TestRequest
>>> from zope.schema import Int
>>> from zope.formlib.widget import IntWidget
>>> field = Int(__name__='number', title=u'Number', min=0, max=10)
>>> request = TestRequest(form={'field.number': u'9'})
>>> widget = IntWidget(field, request)
>>> widget.hasInput()
>>> widget.getInputValue()
>>> print widget().replace(' ', '\n  ')

  • Line 1 & 5: For views, including widgets, we always need a request object. The TestRequest class is the quick and easy way to create a request without much hassle. For each presentation type there exists a TestRequest class. The class takes a form argument, which is a dictionary of values contained in the HTML form. The widget will later access this information.
  • Line 2: Import an integer field.
  • Line 3 & 6: Import the widget that displays and converts an integer from the HTML form. Initializing a widget only requires a field and a request.
  • Line 4: Create an integer field with the constraint that the value must lie between 0 and 10. The __name__ argument must be passed here, since the field has not been initialized inside an interface, where the __name__ would be automatically assigned.
  • Line 7-8: This method checks whether the form contained a value for this widget.
  • Line 9-10: If so, then we can use the getInputValue() method to return the converted and validated value (an integer in this case). If we would have chosen an integer outside this range, a WidgetInputError would have been raised.
  • Line 11-20: Display the HTML representation of the widget. The replace() call is only for better readability of the output.

Note that you usually will not have to deal with these methods at all manually, since the form generator and data converter does all the work for you. The only method you will commonly overwrite is _validate(), which you will use to validate custom values. This brings us right into the next subject, customizing widgets.

There are two ways of customizing widgets. For small adjustments to some parameters (properties of the widget), one can use the browser:widget subdirective of the browser:addform and browser:editform directives. For example, to change the widget for a field called “name”, the following ZCML code can be used.

  ... >

      style="width: 100%"/>


In this case we force the system to use the TextWidget for the name, set the display width to 45 characters and add a style attribute that should try to set the width of the input box to the available width.

The second possibility to change the widget of a field is to write a custom view class. In there, custom widgets are easily realized using the CustomWidget wrapper class. Here is a brief example:

from zope.formlib.widget import CustomWidget
from zope.formlib.widget import TextWidget

class CustomTextWidget(TextWidget):

class SomeView:
    name_widget = CustomWidget(CustomTextWidget)
  • Line 1: Since CustomWidget is presentation type independent, it is defined in
  • Line 4-5: You simply extend an existing widget. Here you can overwrite everything, including the _validate() method.
  • Line 7-8: You can hook in the custom widget by adding an attribute called name_widget, where name is the name of the field. The value of the attribute is a CustomWidget instance. CustomWidget has only one required constructor argument, which is the custom widget for the field. Other keyword arguments can be specified as well, which will be set as attributes on the widget.

More information about schemas can be found in the README.txt file of the zope.schema package.

This concludes our introduction to schemas and forms. For examples of schemas and forms in practice, see the tutorial.