BlueBream is a production ready free/open source web application framework written in the Python programming language. BlueBream provides a component architecture, transactional object database, tightly integrated security model and many other features.
BlueBream is coming from the Zope community which is started around 1998. Initially Zope’s core technologies were designed by Zope Corporation. The development of BlueBream started in late 2001. In November 2004, BlueBream was released. BlueBream is a complete rewrite that only preserves the original ZODB object database. The design of BlueBream is driven by the needs of large companies. It is directly intended for enterprise web application development using the newest development paradigms. Extreme programming development process has a real influence in BlueBream development. Automated testing is a major strength of BlueBream. Sprints were introduced to help accelerate BlueBream development. In 2006 Zope foundation was formed to help organize and formalize the relationships with the Zope community.
A few features distinguish BlueBream from other Python web frameworks.
The Zope Foundation has the goal to promote, maintain, and develop the Zope platform. It does this by supporting the Zope community. Our community includes the open source community of contributors to the Zope software, contributors to the documentation and web infrastructure, as well as the community of businesses and organizations that use Zope. The Zope Foundation is the copyright holder of the Zope software and many extensions and associated software. The Zope Foundation also manages the zope.org website, and manages the infrastructure for open source collaboration.
For more details: http://foundation.zope.org/about
If you’re interested in helping and you have time, educate yourself on the component architecture and BlueBream then volunteer to assist in your particular area of expertise. Please come to our IRC channel: #bluebream at irc.freenode.net Also join the mailing list: https://mail.zope.org/mailman/listinfo/bluebream There is a wiki page with more details: http://wiki.zope.org/bluebream/ContributingToBlueBream
BlueBream is licensed under Zope Public License (BSD like, GPL compatible license).
Yes, it is stable enough to be used in production environment. BlueBream (or old Zope 3) is used in several larger production sites already. Several custom solutions have been written too. But the development of BlueBream will probably never be done, it will continue until all our needs are met :)
BlueBream 1.0 support the following Python versions on 32 bit platforms:
If you are using 64 bit platform, it is recommended to use Python 2.6 with BlueBream.
The supported operating systems are: GNU/Linux & MS Windows
Starting from version Zope 3.4, Zope 3 (BlueBream) has been split into many packages called “eggs”, that are released independently. The KGS is a set of python eggs, that are known to work together listed as a Buildout version file.
New versions file will be available here: http://download.zope.org/bluebream/
It’s similar to other component architectures in that it lets you fit small pieces of functionality together. The Zope component architecture is built on top of interface concept. You can read more about component architecture in the manual.
@@ is a shortcut for ++view++. (Mnemonically, it kinda looks like a pair of goggle-eyes)
To specify that you want to traverse to a view named bar of content object foo, you could (compactly) say .../foo/@@bar instead of .../foo/++view++bar.
Note that even the @@ is not necessary if container foo has no element named bar - it only serves to disambiguate between views of an object and things contained within the object.
@@ is also used for static resources. To access the registered static resource named logo.png, you can use /@@/logo.png or the equivalent /++resource++logo.png. The logo.png is a registration name for a file which may eventually have another filename.
The same applies for a resource directory named images: /@@/images/logo.png is equivalent to /++resource++images/logo.png. In that case, logo.png is the real filename located in the registered resource directory.
Use like_class attribute of require tag, Here are some examples:
<class class=".MyImage"> <implements interface=".interfaces.IGalleryItemContained" /> <require like_class="zope.app.file.interfaces.IImage /> </class> <class class=".MySite"> <require like_class="zope.app.folder.Folder" /> </class>
The question is: how do I know if the current principal has permission for a specific view? Something like:
def canEdit(self): ppal = self.request.principal return canView('edit', INewsItem, ppal)
Use zope.security.canAccess and/or zope.security.canWrite
To check for a specific permission on an object, you can do something like:
from zope.security.management import checkPermission has_permission = checkPermission('zope.ModifyContent', self.context)
Start debug shell then unregister the utility. This will then let you log in as a user defined in securitypolicy.zcml.
$ ./bin/paster shell debug.ini ... >>> import transaction >>> from zope.component import getSiteManager >>> from zope.app.security.interfaces import IAuthentication >>> lsm = getSiteManager(root) >>> lsm.unregisterUtility(lsm.getUtility(IAuthentication), IAuthentication) >>> transaction.commit()
When you exit debug and start the server, you should be able to log in again using the user defined in principals.zcml. This should have the zope.Manager permission.
To avoid this happening, either assign a role to a user defined in the PAU or set up a folder beneath the root, make it a site and add and register the PAU there. Then you will still be able to log in to the root of the site and have full permissions.
Call this function to setup a site manager with PAU
from zope.site import LocalSiteManager from zope.pluggableauth.authentication import PluggableAuthentication from zope.authentication.interfaces import IAuthentication from zope.app.authentication.principalfolder import PrincipalFolder from zope.pluggableauth.interfaces import IAuthenticatorPlugin from zope.securitypolicy.interfaces import (IPrincipalRoleManager, IPrincipalPermissionManager) from zope.principalannotation.interfaces import IPrincipalAnnotationUtility from zope.principalannotation.utility import PrincipalAnnotationUtility from zope.session.interfaces import ISessionDataContainer from zope.session.session import PersistentSessionDataContainer from zope.event import notify from zope.lifecycleevent import ObjectCreatedEvent, ObjectModifiedEvent from zope.session.http import CookieClientIdManager from zope.session.http import ICookieClientIdManager from zope.app.authentication.principalfolder import InternalPrincipal def setup_site_manager(context): context.setSiteManager(LocalSiteManager(context)) sm = context.getSiteManager() pau = PluggableAuthentication(prefix='hello.pau.') notify(ObjectCreatedEvent(pau)) sm[u'authentication'] = pau sm.registerUtility(pau, IAuthentication) annotation_utility = PrincipalAnnotationUtility() sm.registerUtility(annotation_utility, IPrincipalAnnotationUtility) session_data = PersistentSessionDataContainer() sm.registerUtility(session_data, ISessionDataContainer) client_id_manager = CookieClientIdManager() notify(ObjectCreatedEvent(client_id_manager)) sm[u'CookieClientIdManager'] = client_id_manager sm.registerUtility(client_id_manager, ICookieClientIdManager) principals = PrincipalFolder(prefix='pf.') notify(ObjectCreatedEvent(principals)) pau[u'pf'] = principals pau.authenticatorPlugins += (u"pf", ) notify(ObjectModifiedEvent(pau)) pau.credentialsPlugins += (u'Session Credentials',) p1 = InternalPrincipal('admin1', 'admin1', "Admin 1", passwordManagerName="Plain Text") principals['p1'] = p1 role_manager = IPrincipalRoleManager(context) login_name = principals.getIdByLogin(p1.login) pid = unicode('hello.pau.' + login_name) role_manager.assignRoleToPrincipal('zope.Manager', pid)
Logout is available from Zope 3.3 onwards, but it is disabled by default. To enable add this line to: etc/site.zcml:
<adapter factory="zope.authentication.logout.LogoutSupported" />
|Q:||I am getting an error like this when accessing login.html view.|
.../eggs/zope.principalregistry-3.7.0-py2.5.egg/zope/principalregistry/principalregistry.py", line 82, in unauthorized a = ILoginPassword(request) TypeError: ('Could not adapt', <zope.publisher.browser.BrowserRequest instance URL=http://localhost:9060/@@login.html>, <InterfaceClass zope.authentication.interfaces.ILoginPassword>)
You need to include zope.login package in your ZCML configuration file (site.zcml) as the adapter registration is available there:
<include package="zope.login" />
The BlueBream documentation infrastructure is powerful in that the html content is generated on the fly. This makes it somewhat slow while browsing on older machines.
A cached (and therefore fast) version of the docs are available online at: http://apidoc.zope.org/++apidoc++/
Please look at: http://docs.zope.org/developer/noncommitter-svn.html
Update the bluebream.cfg and point the URL of BB version file to new release and run buildout. To do this open the bluebream.cfg file and go to [buildout] part definition (mostly at the beginning). You can see a versions option pointing to a URL. Change the URL to point to the new release.
No, you need not to restart, if you use the --reload option provided by the paster serve command. So, you can run like this:
./bin/paster serve --reload debug.ini
Note: We recommend writing automated tests to see the effect of changes. In the beginning, this seems like a huge annoyance - however, getting in the habit of writing unit and functional tests as you develop code will greatly alleviate this issue.
Do it by subscribing to IDatabaseOpenedWithRootEvent (from zope.app.appsetup)
from zope.app.appsetup.interfaces import IDatabaseOpenedWithRootEvent from zope.app.appsetup.bootstrap import getInformationFromEvent import transaction @adapter(IDatabaseOpenedWithRootEvent) def create_my_container(event): db, connection, root, root_folder = getInformationFromEvent(event) if 'mycontainer' not in root_folder: root_folder['mycontainer'] = MyContainer() transaction.commit() connection.close()
Then register this subscriber in your configure.zcml:
<subscriber handler="myapp.create_my_container" />
Consider a simple example: there is a person object. A person object has name, email and phone attributes. How do we implement a validation rule that says either email or phone have to exist, but not necessarily both.
First we have to make a callable object - either a simple function or callable instance of a class:
>>> def contacts_invariant(obj): ... if not (obj.email or obj.phone): ... raise Exception("At least one contact info is required")
Then, we define the person object’s interface like this. Use the interface.invariant function to set the invariant:
>>> class IPerson(interface.Interface): ... ... name = interface.Attribute("Name") ... email = interface.Attribute("Email Address") ... phone = interface.Attribute("Phone Number") ... ... interface.invariant(contacts_invariant)
Now use validateInvariants method of the interface to validate:
>>> class Person(object): ... interface.implements(IPerson) ... ... name = None ... email = None ... phone = None >>> jack = Person() >>> jack.email = u"email@example.com" >>> IPerson.validateInvariants(jack) >>> jill = Person() >>> IPerson.validateInvariants(jill) Traceback (most recent call last): ... Exception: At least one contact info is required
To get the parent of an object use zope.traversing.api.getParent(obj). To get a list of the parents above an object use zope.traversing.api.getParents(obj).
Is there any way using the ``browser:page`` directive, that I can specify that the Type of a page rendered is not "text/html" but rather "application/vnd.mozilla.xul+xml"?
Use request.response.setHeader('content-type', "application/vnd.mozilla.xul+xml")
from zope.app.container.interfaces import INameChooser
Name will be assigned from create or createAndAdd methods, here is an eg:
def create(self, data): mycontainer = MyObject() mycontainer.value1 = data['value1'] anotherobj = AnotherObject() anotherobj.anothervalue1 = data['anothervalue1'] namechooser = INameChooser(mycontainer) name = chooser.chooseName('AnotherObj', anotherobj) mycontainer[name] = anotherobj return mycontainer
See this eg:
from zopetic.interfaces import ITicket from zopetic.interfaces import ICollector from zopetic.ticketcollector import Collector from zope.app.intid.interfaces import IIntIds from zope.app.intid import IntIds from zope.component import getSiteManager from zope.app.catalog.interfaces import ICatalog from zope.app.catalog.catalog import Catalog from zope.security.proxy import removeSecurityProxy from zope.app.catalog.text import TextIndex ... def create(self, data): collector = Collector() collector.description = data['description'] return collector def add(self, object): ob = self.context.add(object) sm = getSiteManager(ob) rootfolder = ob.__parent__ cat = Catalog() rootfolder['cat'] = cat if sm.queryUtility(IIntIds) is None: uid = IntIds() rootfolder['uid'] = uid sm.registerUtility(removeSecurityProxy(uid), IIntIds, '') pass sm.registerUtility(removeSecurityProxy(cat), ICatalog, 'cat') cat['description'] = TextIndex('description', ITicket) self._finished_add = True return ob
zope.component.getMultiAdapter((the_object, the_request), name='absolute_url')
|Q:||Is there a way to sort the objects returned by values() from a zope.app.container.btree.BTreeContainer instance?|
Use sorted builtin function (available from Python 2.4 onwards)
class MyPageView(BrowserView): def __call__(self): if 'myOperation' in self.request.form: param1 = self.request.form['param1'] param2 = self.request.form['param2'] do_something(param1, param2)
MyPageView has to be either the default view associated to the ‘mypage’ object or a view called ‘mypage’ associated to the RootFolder object.
Alternately, you could use:
class MyPageView(BrowserView): def __call__(self, param1, param2="DEFAULT"): if 'myOperation' in self.request.form: do_something(param1, param2)
Use a mutex (a recursive lock makes things easier too):
lock = threading.RLock() lock.acquire() try: ... finally: lock.release()
Is it adaptable to IKeyReference ? If you’re using the ZODB, deriving from Persistent is enough.
You can do so with a little zcml:
<class class="zope.app.file.Image"> <implements interface="mypkg.interfaces.IBloggable" /> </class>
|Q:||How I can get IRequest in my event handler (I have only context)?|
import zope.security.management import zope.security.interfaces import zope.publisher.interfaces def getRequest(): i = zope.security.management.getInteraction() # raises NoInteraction for p in i.participations: if zope.publisher.interfaces.IRequest.providedBy(p): return p raise RuntimeError('Could not find current request.')
Refer http://kpug.zwiki.org/ZopeCreatingRSS (Taken from old zope-cookbook.org)
Look at schema.xml inside zope.app.appsetup egg And this xml file can point you to rest of the syntax. For details about <zodb> look for component.xml in ZODB egg
First create a fileresource factory (or imageresourcefactory, or another one):
from zope.app.publisher.browser.fileresource import FileResourceFactory from zope.security.checker import CheckerPublic path = 'path/to/file.png' registration_name = 'file.png' factory = FileResourceFactory(path, CheckerPublic, name)
Then register it for your layer:
from zope.component import provideAdapter provideAdapter(factory, (IYourLayer,), Interface, name)
A resource is just an adapter on the request. It can be seen as a view without any context. you can retrieve the FileResource or DirectoryResource like this::
If this is a directory resource, you can access the files in it::
Then get the content of the file with the GET method (although this is not part of any interface):
Register a view for zope.publisher.interfaces.INotFound in your layer. The default corresponding view is zope.app.exception.browser.notfound.NotFound An equivalent exists for pagelets: z3c.layer.pagelet.browser.NotFoundPagelet
You can’t control the order of deletion. The problem is that certain objects get deleted too soon, and other items may need them around, particularly if you have specified IObjectRemoved adapters.
You basically have to manually create a deletion dependency tree, and force the deletion order yourself. This is one of the problems with events, that is, their order is not well defined.
FIXME: override the ++skin++ namespace traversal?
z3c.traverser and zope.contentprovider are helpful packages with good and clear doctests. It takes not too much time to get up and running with them. However the packages do not include an example of how to configure your new useful code into your project. It is clear from the doctests (and from your own doctests written while making and testing your own code) what needs to be configured. But if you are like me and it all isn’t yet quite second-nature, it isn’t clear how it can be configured. So, for z3c.traverser:
<!-- register traverser for app --> <view for=".IMallApplication" type="zope.publisher.interfaces.browser.IBrowserRequest" provides="zope.publisher.interfaces.browser.IBrowserPublisher" factory="z3c.traverser.browser.PluggableBrowserTraverser" permission="zope.Public" /> <!-- register traverser plugins --> <!-- my own plugin --> <subscriber for=".IMallApplication zope.publisher.interfaces.browser.IBrowserRequest" provides="z3c.traverser.interfaces.ITraverserPlugin" factory=".traverser.MallTraverserPlugin" /> <!-- and traverser package container traverser --> <subscriber for=".IMallApplication zope.publisher.interfaces.browser.IBrowserRequest" provides="z3c.traverser.interfaces.ITraverserPlugin" factory="z3c.traverser.traverser.ContainerTraverserPlugin" />
And for zope.contentprovider:
<!-- register named adapter for menu provider --> <adapter provides="zope.contentprovider.interfaces.IContentProvider" factory="tfws.menu.provider.MenuProvider" name="tfws.menu" /> <!-- this does the directlyProvides --> <interface interface="tfws.menu.provider.IMenu" type="zope.contentprovider.interfaces.ITALNamespaceData" />
You could just use the <utility> directive, and group your constants into logical chunks.
class IDatabaseLoginOptions(Interface): username = Attribute() password = Attribute()
class DatabaseLoginOptions(object): implements(IDatabaseLoginOptions) username = 'foo' password = 'bar'
<utility factory=".config.DatabaseLoginOptions" />
opts = getUtility(IDatabaseLoginOptions)
Obviously, this is a bit more work than just declaring some constants in ZCML, but global constants suffer the same problems whether they’re defined in Python or XML. Parts of your application are making assumptions that they are there, with very specific names, which are not type checked.
You need to create and register simple adapter for object, request and view that implements the IContentProvider interface:
class LatestNews(object): implements(IContentProvider) adapts(Interface, IDefaultBrowserLayer, Interface) def __init__(self, context, request, view): self.context = context self.request = request self.__parent__ = view def update(self): pass def render(self): return 'Latest news'
In the ZCML:
<adapter name="latestNews" for="* zope.publisher.interfaces.browser.IDefaultBrowserLayer *" provides="zope.contentprovider.interfaces.IContentProvider" factory=".LatestNews" />
Then you can use it in your TAL templates just like this:
<div tal:content="provider latestNews" />
Also, you may want to pass some parameters via TAL. For info on how to do this, read documentation in the zope.contentprovider. If you want to bind some content provider to some skin, change IDefaultBrowserLayer to your skin interface.
See the ZCML directives <resource> and <resourceDirectory> they let you publish static files through BlueBream. More info.
Yes, see this: http://svn.zope.org/zope.webdav/trunk
<includeOverrides package="myapp" file="overrides.zcml" />
See this blog entry by Marius Gedminas : http://mg.pov.lt/blog/zope3-custom-traversal.html
Add the following in your apidoc.zcml or configure.zcml:
<apidoc:rootModule module=”myproject” />
If it does not show up, add the following:
<apidoc:moduleImport allow=”true” />
from zope.app.appsetup.appsetup import getConfigContext def is_devmode_enabled(): """Is devmode enabled in zope.conf?""" config_context = getConfigContext() return config_context.hasFeature('devmode')
Use the providedBy available for the interface, it will return True, if the object provides the interface otherwise False.
>>> IMyInterface.providedBy(myobject) True
$ ./bin/test -vpu --dir package/tests test_this_module
Replace ‘package’ with your package name.
You will need to download Shane Hathaways’ excellent (and minimal) tcpwatch package. This will log ALL data flowing between client and server for you, and you can use this in developing tests.
To record a session:
$ mkdir record $ tcpwatch.py -L8081:8080 -r record # Note: use the "-s" option if you don't need a GUI (Tk).
>>> import StringIO >>> myPhoto = StringIO.StringIO('my photo') >>> control = user.getControl(name='photoForm.photo') >>> fileControl = control.mech_control >>> fileControl.add_file(myPhoto, filename='myPhoto.gif') >>> user.getControl(name='photoForm.actions.add').click() >>> imgTag = 'src="http://localhost/++skin++Application/000001/0001/1/photo"' >>> imgTag in user.contents True
ForbiddenAttribute are always (ALWAYS!!!) an sign of missing security declarations, or of code accessing stuff it shouldn’t. If you’re accessing a known method, you’re most definitely lacking a security declaration for it.
Zope, by default, is set to deny access for attributes and methods that don’t have explicit declarations.
When you compile Python, make sure you have installed zlib development library.
Here’s a nicely formatted IRC log detailing how Steve Alexander found a particular bug; it gives lots of good advice on tracking bugs:
http://dev.zope.org/Members/spascoe/HowOneZope3BugWasFixed (Scott Pascoe)
Ken Manheimer wrote up an in-depth account of interactive Zope debugging using the python prompt - it was written for Zope 2, but many of the principles and some of the actual techniques should translate to BlueBream. It’s at:
Here is ‘Using the Zope Debugger’ from the Zope3 docs:
When you try to step into eggified code (libraries), you find that the source file referenced is invalid. Closer inspection reveals that the source path referenced has an invalid member like ‘tmpXXXXX’.
The fix is easy, but first the reason why this happens:
When you install eggs with easy_install, it creates a temp directory, and byte compiles the python code. Hence, the .pyc files that are generated reference this (working, but temporary) path. Easy_install then copies the entire package into the right place, and so the .pyc files are stuck with invalid references to source files.
To solve this, simply remove all the ”.pyc” files from any .egg paths that you have. On Unix, something like:
find . -name "*.pyc" | xargs rm
should do the trick.
Edit the debug.ini file and update [filter-app:main] section as mentioned in the comment there:
[filter-app:main] # Change the last part from 'ajax' to 'pdb' for a post-mortem debugger # on the console: use = egg:z3c.evalexception#ajax next = zope
Restart the server in the foreground (you need an attached console to interact with the debugger).:
$ ./bin/paster serve debug.ini
Now, when a request raises an exception, you’ll be dropped into a post-mortem debugger at the point of the exception.
You can use z3c.blobfile implementation for storing images and other normal files.
In BlueBream, blob storage is configured by default. The Zope configuration is inside etc/zope.conf:
<zodb> <filestorage> path var/filestorage/Data.fs blob-dir var/blob </filestorage> ...
The blob-dir specifies the directory where you want to store blobs.
From the debug shell, call the app.db.pack function:
$ ./bin/paster shell debug.ini >>> app.db.pack()
The Zope Object DataBase (ZODB), available by default to your application, makes CRUD very simpe.
>>> from recipe import MyFolder, Recipe >>> folder = MyFolder() >>> recipe = Recipe() >>> folder['dead_chicken'] = recipe
>>> folder['dead_chicken'] <worldcookery.recipe.Recipe object at XXX>
>>> recipe = folder['dead_chicken'] >>> recipe.title = u'Dead chicken' >>> recipe.description = u'Beat it to death'
>>> del recipe['dead_chicken']
There are some packages under development: