Interfaces are objects that specify (document) the external behavior of objects that “provide” them. An interface specifies behavior through:
Some of the motivations for using interfaces are:
The main idea in the Zope Component Architecture is the use of components, rather than multiple-inheritance for managing complexity.
Zope Component Architecture is about how to create reusable components, but not reusable components itself.
A component is a reusable object with introspectable interfaces. Also components are cohesive and decoupled objects. A component provides an interface implemented in a class. It doesn’t matter how a component is implemented, the important part is that it complies with its interface contracts. An interface is an object that describes how you work with a particular component. Using Zope component architecture we can spread the complexity of systems over multiple cooperating components. Zope component architecture help us to create two basic kinds of components, adapters and utilities.
Events are objects that represent something happening in a system. They are used to extend processing by providing processing plug points. The zope.event provides the basic event publishing system. The zope.event package also provides a very simple event-dispatching system on which more sophisticated event dispatching systems can be built. For example, a type-based event dispatching system that builds on zope.event can be found in zope.component.
Summary: Adapter takes the Interface of an existing component and adapts it to provide another Interface.
When applications gets bigger, there is a side effect on the code, called the spaggethi effect: interactions between classes can lead to unwanted dependencies and the code turns into a monolithic block.
Adapters provides a way to prevent from this, by implementing the Liskov substitution principle.
Adapters provide a cooperation mechanism between any given object and a particular context, using interfaces. They allow an abritary type of class to be compatible with a given interface, by giving a compatibility layer.
This mechanism is used in systems like Microsoft COM’s QueryAdapter, and let the developer gathers objects in a specific functional context. This also known as glue code.
Adapters provides several advantages:
Adapters can be seen as a formalized duck typing and where proposed some years ago in PEP 246. There are also Python implementations of it, like PyProtocols.
Utility components are components that serve only one specific function, and are not designed to act on another component. A good analogy for Python programmers are functions and methods. Utility components, like Python functions, are standalone objects that do not need any other objects to do their work. Adapter components, like Python methods, require another object to work upon.
Utility components will mostly be used for simple, throw-away components that serve one simple task, like an XML parser. Sometimes it would be useful to register an object which is not adapting anything. Database connection, XML parser, object returning unique Ids etc. are examples of these kinds of objects. These kind of components provided by the ZCA are called utility components.
Utilities are just objects that provide an interface and that are looked up by an interface and a name. This approach creates a global registry by which instances can be registered and accessed by different parts of your application, with no need to pass the instances around as parameters.
Unlike regular adapters, subscription adapters (subscriber) are used when we want all of the adapters that adapt an object to a particular interface. Subscription adapter is also known as subscriber.
Handlers are subscription adapter factories that don’t produce anything. They do all of their work when called. Handlers are typically used to handle events. Handlers are also known as event subscribers or event subscription adapters.
Event subscribers are different from other subscription adapters in that the caller of event subscribers doesn’t expect to interact with them in any direct way. For example, an event publisher doesn’t expect to get any return value. Because subscribers don’t need to provide an API to their callers, it is more natural to define them with functions, rather than classes.
Registries keep the list of which components are available, which interface they provide, which interface(s) they possibly adapt, along with an optional registration name. The zope.component package implements a global component registry. The zope.site package provides a local and persistent component registry called site manager, so that one can register local utilities and adapters.
BlueBream puts your objects on the web. This is called object publishing. One of BlueBream’s unique characteristics is the way it allows you to walk up to your objects and call methods on them with simple URLs. In addition to HTTP, BlueBream makes your objects available to other network protocols including FTP, WebDAV and XML-RPC.
Views provide a connection between an external actor and an object.
A View is typically a display component. Views are typically reponsible for creating HTML. Views can directly return HTML, but will often supply presentational logic and processed data to a Zope Page Template, which then contains the HTML.
Web developers will normally deal with a specialized View called a BrowserView. This is just a View that is made for a web browser, as BlueBream can also provide Views for other protocols, such as FTP or WebDAV. In a BrowserView, the external actor is a web browser request, and the object that the view connects is looked up using traversal and is called the context. Because the Web is the predominant focus of most Zope developers, often the term View is assumed to be a BrowserView.
The constructor for a BrowserView looks like this:
class BrowserView(Location): implements(IBrowserView) def __init__(self, context, request): self.context = context self.request = request
Context is the object that the View is acting upon. Often context will be a Content or Model object, but it may also be a Container or Site object or any object that Zope can publish.
Request is an HTTP Request. If the View is a BrowserView, the Request will have a form attribute where all form data is already marshalled for the programmer.
Consider the URL http://localhost:8080/your-id/a-todo-list/get-cat-food. In BlueBream, your-id would be a Container component that also provided a IHomeFolder interface, a-todo-list would be a To-Do Container component that also provided a IToDoList interaface, and get-cat-food would be a ToDo-Item Content or Model component that also provided a IToDoItem interface. If you entered the URL http://localhost:8080/your-id/a-todo-list/get-cat-food into your web browser, then context would be an object that provided the IToDoItem interface, while request would be an object that represented the web browser request for that web page. However, if the URL was just http://localhost:8080/your-id/ then context would be an object that represented your home folder.
You can look-up a View programmatically with a query:
view = component.queryMultiAdapter((object, request), name='index')
For more reading on Views, there is a section about them in the Plone Core Developer Reference that provides information on how BlueBream Views are being used in Plone: http://plone.org/documentation/manual/plone-developer-reference/patterns/views
Content obejcts are objects with a user visisble view.
If an interface provides zope.app.content.interfaces.IContentType interface type, then all objects providing the interface are considered content objects.
Containers are content objects which hold content objects.
Schemas are just an extension to interfaces and therefore depend on the zope.interface package. Fields in schemas are equivalent to methods in interfaces. Both are complementary to each other, since they describe different aspects of an object. The methods of an interface describe the functionality of a component, while the schema’s fields represent the state.
The views of schema fields are called widgets. Widgets responsible for data display and conversion in their specific presentation type. Currently widgets exist mainly for HTML (the Web browser).
Widgets are separated into two groups, display and input widgets. Display widgets are often very simply and only show a text representation of the Python object. The input widgets, however, are more complex and display a greater variety of choices.
Technically, skins are interfaces inherited from a special interface called IDefaultBrowserLayer. The IDefaultBrowserLayer is defined in zope.publisher.interfaces.browser module. You can also inherit from an already existing skin. It is also important to register the skin interface type as IBrowserSkinType. Skins are directly provided by a request.
Layers versus skins
Every object that comes with BlueBream and can have some sort of annotation, uses attribute annotations. Attribute annotations store the annotation data directly in the objects. This implementation works fine as long as the object is persistent and is stored in the ZODB. But what if you have SQL-based objects, such as in relational-to-object mapping solutions? Storing annotations on the attribute of the object would certainly not work. In these scenarios it becomes necessary to implement a custom annotations implementation.
First, there exists an interface named IAnnotatable. By providing this interface, an object declares that it is possible to store annotations for itself.
However, IAnnotable is too general, since it does not specify how the annotation can be stored and should therefore never be provided directly. One should never assume that one method works for all possible objects.
BlueBream comes by default with an IAttributeAnnotatable interface that allows you to store the annotations in the attribute __annotations__ on the object itself. This works well for any object whose instances are stored in the ZODB.
As second part to the equation we have the IAnnotations interface, which provides a simple mapping API (i.e. dictionary-like) that allows you to look up annotation data using a unique key. This interface is commonly implemented as an adapter requiring IAnnotatable and providing IAnnotations. Thus we need to provide an implementation for IAnnotations to have our own annotations storage mechanism.
For IAttributeAnnotable we have an AttributeAnnotations adapter. Note that by definition IAnnotations extends IAnnotable, since an IAnnotation can always adapt to itself.
Another important aspect about annotations is the key (unique id) that is being used in the mapping. Since annotations may contain a large amount of data, it is important to choose keys in a way that they will always be unique. The simplest way to ensure this is to include the package name in the key. So for dublin core meta data, for example, instead of using ZopeDublinCore as the key one should use zope.app.dublincore.ZopeDublinCore. Some people also use a URI-based namespace notation: http://namespace.zope.org/dublincore/ZopeDublinCore/1.0.
Content Provider is a term from the Java world that refers to components that can provide HTML content. It means nothing more! How the content is found and returned is totally up to the implementation. The BlueBream touch to the concept is that content providers are multi-adapters that are looked up by the context, request (and thus the layer/skin), and view they are displayed in.
The second important concept of content providers are their two-phase rendering design. In the first phase the state of the content provider is prepared and, if applicable, any data, the provider is responsible for, is updated.
Viewlets provide a generic framework for building pluggable user interfaces. The ViewletManager is a content provider. Viewlets are registered with a ViewletManager. The ViewletManager will filter, sort, update, and render each viewlets.
The Zope Object Database provides an object-oriented database for Python that provides a high-degree of transparency. Applications can take advantage of object database features with few, if any, changes to application logic. ZODB includes features such as a pluggable storage interface, rich transaction support, and undo.
Python programs are written with the object-oriented paradigm. You use objects that reference each other freely and can be of any form and shape: no object has to adhere to a specific schema and can hold arbitrary information.
Storing those objects in relational databases requires you to give up on the freedom of reference and schema. The constraints of the relational model reduces your ability to write object-oriented code.
The ZODB is a native object database, that stores your objects while allowing you to work with any paradigms that can be expressed in Python. Thereby your code becomes simpler, more robust and easier to understand.
Also, there is no gap between the database and your program: no glue code to write, no mappings to configure. Have a look at the tutorial to see, how easy it is.
Some of the features that ZODB brings to you:
BlueBream separates all the policies from the actual code and moves it out to separate configuration files. The term configuration might be a bit misleading here. You can think of it as wiring. The Zope Configuration Markup Language (ZCML), the XML-based configuration language that is used for this, is tailored to do component registration and security declarations, for the most part. By enabling or disabling certain components in ZCML, you can configure certain policies of the overall application. If you don’t enable it explicitly in ZCML, it will not be found in the application.
When you are using Zope Component Architecture, you will have many components hanging around in your software. ZCML provides a mechanism for wiring these components together to form an actual application.
Few useful links:
WSGI is the Web Server Gateway Interface. It is a specification for web servers and application servers to communicate with web applications (though it can also be used for more than that). It is a Python standard, described in detail in PEP 333.
PasteScript is an external package created by Ian Bicking.
PasteScript is a framework for defining commands. It comes with a few commands out of the box, like paster serve and paster create.
The paster serve command loads and serves a WSGI application defined in a Paste Deploy config file. The paster create command creates directory layout for packages from a template.
PasteDeploy is an external package created by Ian Bicking.
PasteDeploy is a system for loading and configuring WSGI applications and servers. PasteDeploy create a WSGI app as specified in the configuration file. The INI format of configuration file is specified by PasteDeploy.
From the PasteDeploy site:
Paste Deployment is a system for finding and configuring WSGI applications and servers. For WSGI application consumers it provides a single, simple function (loadapp) for loading a WSGI application from a configuration file or a Python Egg. For WSGI application providers it only asks for a single, simple entry point to your application, so that application users don’t need to be exposed to the implementation details of your application.blog comments powered by Disqus